Genetic association study of dyslexia and ADHD candidate genes in a Spanish cohort: Implications of comorbid samples
Hernández, Juan Andrés
Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni
Bajo, Maria Teresa
Fuentes, Luis J.
Aransay Bañares, Ana María
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Sánchez-Morán M, Hernández JA, Duñabeitia JA, Estévez A, Bárcena L, González-Lahera A, et al. (2018) Genetic association study of dyslexia and ADHD candidate genes in a Spanish cohort: Implications of comorbid samples. PLoS ONE 13(10): e0206431. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0206431
Dyslexia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are two complex neuro-behaviorally disorders that co-occur more often than expected, so that reading disability has been linked to inattention symptoms. We examined 4 SNPs located on genes previously associated to dyslexia (KIAA0319, DCDC2, DYX1C1 and FOXP2) and 3 SNPs within genes related to ADHD (COMT, MAOA and DBH) in a cohort of Spanish children (N = 2078) that met the criteria of having one, both or none of these disorders (dyslexia and ADHD). We used a case-control approach comparing different groups of samples based on each individual diagnosis. In addition, we also performed a quantitative trait analysis with psychometric measures on the general population (N = 3357). The results indicated that the significance values for some markers change depending on the phenotypic groups compared and/or when considering pair-wise marker interactions. Furthermore, our quantitative trait study showed significant genetic associations with specific cognitive processes. These outcomes advocate the importance of establishing rigorous and homogeneous criteria for the diagnosis of cognitive disorders, as well as the relevance of considering cognitive endophenotypes.