Patients Infected with HIV in the Intensive Care Unit (2005 Through 2010): Significant Role of Chronic Hepatitis C and Severe Sepsis
Medrano Laporte, José
Álvaro Meca, Luis Alejandro
Jiménez Sousa, María A.
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Critical Care 18 : (2014) // Article ID 475
Introduction: The combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has led to decreased opportunistic infections and hospital admissions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, but the intensive care unit (ICU) admission rate remains constant (or even increased in some instances) during the cART era. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with an increased risk for hospital admission and/or mortality (particularly those related to severe liver disease) compared with the general population. The aim of this study was to assess the mortality among HIV-infected patients in ICU, and to evaluate the impact of HIV/HCV coinfection and severe sepsis on ICU mortality. Methods: We carried out a retrospective study based on patients admitted to ICU who were recorded in the Minimum Basic Data Set (2005 through 2010) in Spain. HIV-infected patients (All-HIV-group (n = 1,891)) were divided into two groups: HIV-monoinfected patients (HIV group (n = 1,191)) and HIV/HCV-coinfected patients (HIV/HCV group (n = 700)). A control group (HIV(-)/HCV(-)) was also included (n = 7,496). Results: All-HIV group had higher frequencies of severe sepsis (57.7% versus 39.4%; P < 0.001) than did the control group. Overall, ICU mortality in patients with severe sepsis was much more frequent than that in patients without severe sepsis (other causes) at days 30 and 90 in HIV-infected patients and the control group (P < 0.001). Moreover, the all-HIV group in the presence or absence of severe sepsis had a higher percentage of death than did the control group at days 7 (P < 0.001), 30 (P < 0.001) and 90 (P < 0.001). Besides, the HIV/HCV group had a higher percentage of death, both in patients with severe sepsis and in patients without severe sepsis compared with the HIV group at days 7 (P < 0.001) and 30 (P < 0.001), whereas no differences were found at day 90. In a bayesian competing-risk model, the HIV/HCV group had a higher mortality risk (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.44 (95% Cl = 1.30 to 1.59) and aHR = 1.57 (95% CI = 1.38 to 1.78) for patients with and without severe sepsis, respectively). Conclusions: HIV infection was related to a higher frequency of severe sepsis and death among patients admitted to the ICU. Besides, HIV/HCV coinfection contributed to an increased risk of death in both the presence and the absence of severe sepsis.