Opipramol Inhibits Lipolysis in Human Adipocytes without Altering Glucose Uptake and Differently from Antipsychotic and Antidepressant Drugs with Adverse Effects on Body Weight Control
Gómez Zorita, Saioa
Iglesias-Osma, Mari Carmen
Garcia-Barrado, Maria José
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Pharmaceuticals 13(3) : (2020) // Article ID 41
Treatment with several antipsychotic drugs exhibits a tendency to induce weight gain and diabetic complications. The proposed mechanisms by which the atypical antipsychotic drug olanzapine increases body weight include central dysregulations leading to hyperphagia and direct peripheral impairment of fat cell lipolysis. Several investigations have reproduced in vitro direct actions of antipsychotics on rodent adipocytes, cultured preadipocytes, or human adipose tissue-derived stem cells. However, to our knowledge, no such direct action has been described in human mature adipocytes. The aim of the present study was to compare in human adipocytes the putative direct alterations of lipolysis by antipsychotics (haloperidol, olanzapine, ziprazidone, risperidone), antidepressants (pargyline, phenelzine), or anxiolytics (opipramol). Lipolytic responses to the tested drugs, and to recognized lipolytic (e.g., isoprenaline) or antilipolytic agents (e.g., insulin) were determined, together with glucose transport and amine oxidase activities in abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes from individuals undergoing plastic surgery. None of the tested drugs were lipolytic. Surprisingly, only opipramol exhibited substantial antilipolytic properties in the micromolar to millimolar range. An opipramol antilipolytic effect was evident against isoprenaline-, forskolin-, or atrial natriuretic peptide-stimulated lipolysis. Opipramol did not impair insulin activation of glucose transport but inhibited monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity to the same extent as antidepressants recognized as MAO inhibitors (pargyline, harmine, or phenelzine), whereas antipsychotics were inefficient. Considering its unique properties, opipramol, which is not associated with weight gain in treated patients, is a good candidate for drug repurposing because it limits exaggerated lipolysis, prevents hydrogen peroxide release by amine oxidases in adipocytes, and is thereby of potential use to limit lipotoxicity and oxidative stress, two deleterious complications of diabetes and obesity.
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