Gene–Diet Interactions in Colorectal Cancer: Survey Design, Instruments, Participants and Descriptive Data of a Case–Control Study in the Basque Country
Alegría Lertxundi, Iker
Aguirre Gómez, Carmelo
Bujanda Fernández de Pierola, Luis
Fernández Fernández, Francisco Javier
Ordovás, José María
Etxezarraga Zuluaga, María Carmen
Zabalza Estévez, Ignacio
Portillo Villares, María Isabel
Martínez de Pancorbo Gómez, María de los Angeles
Palencia Madrid, Leire
García Etxebarria, Koldo
Rocandio Pablo, Ana María
Arroyo Izaga, Marta
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Nutrients 12(8) : (2020) // Article ID 2362
Epidemiologic studies have revealed inconsistent evidence of gene-diet interaction in relation to colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study was to analyze them in a sample of cases and controls from the population-based bowel cancer screening program of the Osakidetza/Basque Health Service. This study analyzed dietetic, genetic, demographic, socioeconomic factors and lifestyles. In the present manuscript, the survey design, sampling, instruments, measurements and related quality management were presented. Moreover, we analyze differences between cases and controls in some data, especially those related to diet. The participants were 308 cases and 308 age- and sex-matched subjects as controls. Cases were more likely than controls to have overweight/obesity (67.5% vs. 58.1%, p < 0.05), a lower intake of vitamin B2 (0.86 ± 0.23 vs. 0.92 ± 0.23 mg/1000 kcal, p < 0.01) and calcium:phosphorus ratio (0.62 ± 0.12 vs. 0.65 ± 0.13, p < 0.01). A higher proportion of cases than controls did not meet the Nutritional Objectives for saturated fatty acids (85.7% vs. 67.5%, p < 0.001) or cholesterol (35.4% vs. 25.0%, p < 0.01). In conclusion, the present study provides valuable data for analyzing the complexity of gene-diet interaction in relation to CRC. The results presented here suggest that overweight/obesity and a high intake of certain dietary components, especially saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, are more frequent in cases than in controls.
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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