(1) Background: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a heterogeneous and complex disease with only partial response to therapy, high incidence of metastasis and recurrences, and scarce reliable biomarkers indicative of progression and survival. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play an important role supporting and promoting renal cancer progression. (2) Methods: In this study, we analysed fibroblast activation protein-α (FAP) immunohistochemical expression and its soluble isoform (sFAP) in tumour tissues and plasma from 128 patients with renal tumours. (3) Results: FAP is expressed in the cell surface of CAFs of the tumour centre and infiltrating front from clear cell renal cell carcinomas (CCRCC, n = 89), papillary renal cell carcinomas (PRCC, n = 21), and chromophobe renal cell carcinomas (ChRCC, n = 8), but not in the benign tumour renal oncocytoma (RO, n = 10). A high expression of FAP and low levels sFAP are significantly associated with high tumour diameter, high grade, and high pT stage, lymph node invasion, development of early metastases, and worse 5-year cancer specific survival of CCRCC patients. (4) Conclusions: These findings corroborate the potential usefulness of FAP immunohistochemistry and plasma sFAP as a biomarker of CCRCC progression and point to CAF-related proteins as promising immunohistochemical biomarkers for the differential diagnosis of ChRCC and RO.