Design of a Nasal Spray Based on Cardiospermum halicacabum Extract Loaded in Phospholipid Vesicles Enriched with Gelatin or Chondroitin Sulfate
Vázquez, José Antonio
López Méndez, Tania Belén
Pedraz Muñoz, José Luis
Manca, Maria Letizia
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Molecules 26(21) : (2021) // Article ID 6670
The extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum L. (C. halicacabum) obtained from flower, leaf and vine was loaded into modified phospholipid vesicles aiming at obtaining sprayable, biocompatible and effective nasal spray formulations for the treatment of nasopharyngeal diseases. Penetration enhancer-containing vesicles (PEVs) and hyalurosomes were formulated, and stabilized by adding a commercial gelatin from fish (20 mg/mL) or chondroitin sulfate from catshark cartilages (Scyliorhinus canicula, 20 mg/mL). Cryo-TEM images confirmed the formation of spherical vesicles, while photon correlation spectroscopy analysis disclosed the formation of small and negatively-charged vesicles. PEVs were the smaller vesicles (~100 nm) along with gelatin-hyalurosomes (~120 nm), while chondroitin-PEVs and chondroitin-hyalurosomes were larger (~160 nm). Dispersions prepared with chondroitin sulfate were more homogeneous, as the polydispersity index was ~0.15. The in vitro analysis of the droplet size distribution, average velocity module and spray cone angle suggested a good spray-ability and deposition of formulations in the nasal cavity, as the mean diameter of the droplets was in the range recommended by the Food and Drug Administration for nasal targets. The spray plume analysis confirmed the ability of PEVs, gelatin-PEVs, hyalurosomes and gelatin-hyalurosomes to be atomized in fine droplets homogenously distributed in a full cone plume, with an angle ranging from 25 to 30°. Moreover, vesicles were highly biocompatible and capable of protecting the epithelial cells against oxidative damage, thus preventing the inflammatory state.
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).