Filter feeders are target species for microplastic (MP) pollution, as particles can accumulate in the digestive system, disturbing feeding processes and becoming internalized in tissues. MPs may also carry pathogens or pollutants present in the environment. This work assessed the influence of polystyrene (PS) MP size and concentration on accumulation and depuration time and the role of MPs as vectors for metallic (Cd) and organic (benzo(a)pyrene, BaP) pollutants. One-day exposure to pristine MPs induced a concentration-dependent accumulation in the digestive gland (in the stomach and duct lumen), and after 3-day depuration, 45 µm MPs appeared between gill filaments, while 4.5 µm MPs also occurred within gill filaments. After 3-day exposure to contaminated 4.5 µm MPs, mussels showed increased BaP levels whilst Cd accumulation did not occur. Here, PS showed higher affinity to BaP than to Cd. Three-day exposure to pristine or contaminated MPs did not provoke significant alterations in antioxidant and peroxisomal enzyme activities in the gills and digestive gland nor in lysosomal membrane stability. Exposure to dissolved contaminants and to MP-BaP caused histological alterations in the digestive gland. In conclusion, these short-term studies suggest that MPs are ingested and internalized in a size-dependent manner and act as carriers of the persistent organic pollutant BaP.