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dc.contributor.authorCortázar Dueñas, María ORCID
dc.contributor.authorÁlvarez Gordejuela, Jon
dc.contributor.authorOlazar Barona, Leire
dc.contributor.authorSantamaría Moreno, Laura ORCID
dc.contributor.authorLópez Zabalbeitia, Gartzen ORCID
dc.contributor.authorVillafan Vidales, Heidi Isabel
dc.contributor.authorAsueta, Asier
dc.contributor.authorOlazar Aurrecoechea, Martin ORCID
dc.identifier.citationFuel 317 : (2022) // Article ID 123457es_ES
dc.description.abstract[EN] The performance of olivine, dolomite and gamma-alumina primary catalysts was evaluated in the continuous tar elimination process in which toluene was selected as the biomass gasification tar model compound. Iron was incorporated into these catalysts in order to improve their catalytic activity. All the experiments were performed in a continuous flow fluidized bed micro-reactor, with a steam/toluene ratio of 4 and a space velocity (GHSV) of 820 h(-1), which corresponds to a catalyst amount of 3.8 cm(3). The effect of temperature was studied using olivine in the 800-900 degrees C range, which allowed concluding that 850 degrees C was the best temperature for tar removal. The fresh and deactivated catalysts were characterized by N-2 adsorption-desorption, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO). Tar conversion efficiency was assessed by means of carbon conversion, H-2 yield (based on the maximum allowed by stoichiometry), gas composition and product yields, with Fe/Al2O3 leading to the highest conversion (87.6 %) and H-2 yield (38 %). Likewise, Fe/Al2O3 also provided the highest stability, as it allowed operating for long periods with high conversion values (85.9 % after 35 min on stream), although it underwent severe deactivation. The analysis of the spent catalysts revealed that deactivation occurred mainly by coke deposition on the catalyst surface and iron phase oxidation, with Fe/olivine and Fe/dolomite leading to the faster deactivation due to their poorer metal dispersion related to their reduced surface area. The TPO profiles showed that the coke deposited on the three catalysts was amorphous with a very small contribution of highly structured carbon.es_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work was carried out with the financial support of the grants RTI2018-098283-J-I00 and PID2019−107357RB-I00 funded by MCIN/AEI/ 10.13039/501100011033 and by “ERDF A way of making Europe” and the grants IT1218−19 and KK-2020/00107 funded by the Basque Government. Moreover, this project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No 823745.es_ES
dc.subjectprimary catalystes_ES
dc.subjectbiomass gasificationes_ES
dc.subjecttar model compoundes_ES
dc.subjecttar eliminationes_ES
dc.subjectfluidized bedes_ES
dc.subjectcatalyst deactivationes_ES
dc.titleActivity and stability of different Fe loaded primary catalysts for tar eliminationes_ES
dc.rights.holder© 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
dc.rights.holderAtribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 3.0 España*
dc.contributor.funderEuropean Commission
dc.departamentoesIngeniería químicaes_ES
dc.departamentoesIngeniería química y del medio ambientees_ES
dc.departamentoeuIngeniaritza kimikoaes_ES
dc.departamentoeuIngeniaritza kimikoa eta ingurumenaren ingeniaritzaes_ES

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© 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (