Stochastic Surface Models for Commodity Futures: A 2D Kalman Filter Approach
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We propose a two-dimensional Kalman filter approach that, additional to the information contained in futures prices evolution over time, makes use of information contained in the term structure of commodity futures along a second dimension of maturities. This time-maturity surface reflects a complete realization of the stochastic process as an alternative to standard Kalman filtering of a limited vector of futures prices along the one-dimensional time line. Thus, the proposed methodology may use the full information from the entire surface dynamics, including links from all available maturities per period, which eventually should lead to more accurate model parameter estimates. The technique is illustrated using coal futures prices.