Electricity consumption and economic growth: evidence from Spain
Ciarreta Antuñano, Aitor
Zárraga Alonso, Ainhoa
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The paper investigates both linear and nonlinear causality between electricity consumption and economic growth in Spain for the period 1971-2005. We use the methodology of Toda and Yamamoto (1995) and Dolado and Lütkepohl (1996). We also apply the standard Granger causality tests in a VAR for the series in first differences to achieve stationarity. The results are similar with both methodologies, which shows their robustness. We find unidirectional linear causality running from real GDP to electricity consumption. On the contrary, we find no evidence of nonlinear Granger causality between the series in either direction.