Impacts of graphene-family nanomaterials and nano and microplastics and associated pollutantsin the marine environment using mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis as target organisms.
González Soto, Nagore
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The rapid development of nanotechnology has led to a growing concern about the entry and possibleimpacts of nanomaterials, such as graphene family nanomaterials (GFNs) in the marine environment.Similarly, plastic pollution has become a global pollution problem and effects of nanoplastics (NPs) andmicroplastics (MPs) are particularly under studied. Further, GFNs and NPs and MPs could cause anadditional threat to marine organisms because they could act as carriers of pollutants such as polycyclicaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to marine organisms, increasing their bioavailability and toxicity throughthe so-called Trojan horse effect. Thus, this PhD thesis aimed to assess the potential hazards for themarine environment posed by GFNs and NPs and MPs and associated PAHs. Overall, this workdemonstrated that GFNs, NPs and MPs can act as carriers of the PAH benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) but the roleof GFNs in reducing the bioaccumulation and toxicity of associated pollutants must be highlighted.Interactions between GFNs, NPs and MPs with sorbed BaP occur, giving rise to different toxicity patternsdepending on the response studied at molecular, cellular, tissue and organism levels. Overall the Trojanhorse effect resulted more complex than previously anticipated and further studies are needed tounderstand the hazards posed by GFNs, NPs and MPs and associated pollutants for marine organisms atboth early developmental and adult stages, especially at long-term.