The use of models as written corrective feedback in spontaneous EFL writing
Loidi Labandibar, Udane
While a number of studies have investigated the noticing function of output, the language learning potential of writing and the way in which written corrective feedback (CF) can promote language acquisition have been underexplored. In a three-stage writing task including output, comparison and delayed revision, the present study investigates what Basque-Spanish teenage learners (n=60) of English as a foreign language (EFL) notice when writing a composition in response to some pictures (Stage 1) and when comparing their texts with two models (Stage 2). It also explores how these noticing and feedback processing affects their subsequent revisions (Stage 3).The findings revealed that participants noticed mainly lexical problems, although the comparison with the models also allowed them to pay attention to content features. Regarding proficiency and guiding effects, it was found that more proficient learners and those who received guidance noticed more features. Finally, a qualitative analysis of the results indicated that learners had quite a negative attitude towards writing and modelling and that those who showed more positive beliefs incorporated more features in subsequent revisions. A number of implications drawn from these results are discussed for research and pedagogy.