Dynamics of Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotypes Causing Acute Otitis Media Isolated from Children with Spontaneous Middle-Ear Drainage over a 12-Year Period (1999–2010) in a Region of Northern Spain
Marimón Ortiz de Zarate, José María
González Pérez-Yarza, Eduardo
Pérez Trallero, Emilio
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PLoS ONE 8(1) : (2013) // e54333.
The aim of this study was to determine the serotype and clonal distribution of pneumococci causing acute otitis media (AOM) and their relationship with recurrences and mixed infections with other microorganisms under the influence of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). To do this, all pneumococcal isolates collected from the spontaneous middle-ear drainage of children <5 years old diagnosed of AOM by their pediatrician or their general practitioner from 1999 to 2010 were phenotypically characterized and the most frequent serotypes were genotyped. In the 12-year study, 818 episodes of pneumococcal AOM were detected, mostly (70.5%) in children younger than 2 years old. In 262 episodes (32%), the pneumococci were isolated with another bacterium, mainly (n = 214) Haemophilus influenzae. Mixed infections were similar in children under or over 2 years old. The most frequent serotypes were 19A (n = 227, 27.8%), 3 (n = 92, 11.2%) and 19F (n = 74, 9%). Serotypes included in the PCV7 sharply decreased from 62.4% in the pre-vaccination (1999–2001) to 2.2% in the late post-vaccination period (2008–2010). Serotype diversity steadily increased after the introduction of the PCV7 but decreased from 2008–2010 due to the predominant role of serotype 19A isolates, mostly ST276 and ST320. The prevalence of serotype 3 doubled from 6.1% (20/326) in 1999–2004 to 14.6% (72/492) in 2005–2010. Relapses mainly occurred in male infants infected with isolates with diminished antimicrobial susceptibility. Reinfections caused by isolates with the same serotype but different genotype were frequent, highlighting the need for genetic studies to differentiate among similar strains. In conclusion, the main change in pneumococcal AOM observed after the introduction of the PCV7 was the sharp decrease in vaccine serotypes. Also notable was the high burden of serotype 19A in total pneumococcal AOM before and especially after the introduction of the PCV7, as well as in relapses and reinfections.