Comparison of Aquitaine and Rioja red wines: characterization of their phenolic composition and evolution from 2000 to 2013
Prieto Perea, Noelia
Berrueta Simal, Luis Angel
Gallo Hermosa, Blanca
Rasines Perea, Zurine
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Molecules 22(2) : (2017) // Article ID 192
Wine chemical analysis was carried out on 194 commercial blended red wines produced by two major wine-growing areasthe Aquitaine (France) and Rioja (Spain) regionsin order to compare the wines of both regions. Anthocyanins and derived pigments, tannins and derivatives were identified and quantified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS (high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector and mass spectrometry using the electrospray ionization interface). Mean degree of polymerization (mDP) was determined. The influence of the wine-growing region and the predominance of the properties of some grape varieties used are confirmed by the significant differences observed between both regions. Rioja and Bordeaux generic (Bordeaux and Bordeaux-Superieur appellations) red wines showed the highest anthocyanic content and the highest mDP, as these wines are in a majority made from Merlot (Bordeaux generic) and Tempranillo (Rioja). On the contrary, Bordeaux specific regions (Blayais, Medoc, Graves, and Libournais) showed the red wines with the highest total phenolic content and tannin concentration, as the predominant grape variety used is Cabernet Sauvignon. A principal component analysis (PCA) and a hierarchical ascendant classification (HAC) suggesting patterns between the chemical parameters and the distribution of the red wines in three groups were proposed. The comparison of the two wine-growing areas also reveals some similarities between the various grape varieties used. A general effect of a progressive decrease in anthocyanins, anthocyanin-derived pigment and tannins is observed for older wines.
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as 2017 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).