A 4-Trifluoromethyl Analogue of Celecoxib Inhibits Arthritis by Suppressing Innate Immune Cell Activation
Alloza Moral, Iraide
Di Penta, Alessandra
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Arthritis Research & Therapy 14(1) : (2012) // Article ID R9
Introduction: Celecoxib, a highly specific cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor has been reported to have COX-2-independent immunomodulatory effects. However, celecoxib itself has only mild suppressive effects on arthritis. Recently, we reported that a 4-trifluoromethyl analogue of celecoxib (TFM-C) with 205-fold lower COX-2-inhibitory activity inhibits secretion of IL-12 family cytokines through a COX-2-independent mechanism that involves Ca2+-mediated intracellular retention of the IL-12 polypeptide chains. In this study, we explored the capacity of TFM-C as a new therapeutic agent for arthritis. Methods: To induce collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), DBA1/J mice were immunized with bovine type II collagen (CII) in Freund's adjuvant. Collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) was induced in C57BL/6 mice by injecting anti-CII antibodies. Mice received 10 mu g/g of TFM-C or celecoxib every other day. The effects of TFM-C on clinical and histopathological severities were assessed. The serum levels of CII-specific antibodies were measured by ELISA. The effects of TFM-C on mast cell activation, cytokine producing capacity by macophages, and neutrophil recruitment were also evaluated. Results: TFM-C inhibited the severity of CIA and CAIA more strongly than celecoxib. TFM-C treatments had little effect on CII-specific antibody levels in serum. TFM-C suppressed the activation of mast cells in arthritic joints. TFMC also suppressed the production of inflammatory cytokines by macrophages and leukocyte influx in thioglycollate-induced peritonitis. Conclusion: These results indicate that TFM-C may serve as an effective new disease-modifying drug for treatment of arthritis, such as rheumatoid arthritis.