Short-Term Adaptations Following Complex Training in Team-Sports: a Meta-Analysis
Freitas, Tomas T.
Martínez Rodríguez, Alejandro
Calleja González, Julio María
Alcaraz, Pedro E.
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Plos One 12(6) : (2017) // Article ID e0180223
Objective The purpose of this meta-analysis was to study the short-term adaptations on sprint and vertical jump (VJ) performance following Complex Training (CT) in team-sports. CT is a resistance training method aimed at developing both strength and power, which has a direct effect on sprint and VJ. It consists on alternating heavy resistance training exercises with plyometric/power ones, set for set, on the same workout. Methods A search of electronic databases up to July 2016 (PubMed-MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Web of Knowledge) was conducted. Inclusion criteria: 1) at least one CT intervention group; 2) training protocols >= 4-wks; 3) sample of team-sport players; 4) sprint or VJ as an outcome variable. Effect sizes (ES) of each intervention were calculated and subgroup analyses were performed. Results A total of 9 studies (13 CT groups) met the inclusion criteria. Medium effect sizes (ES) (ES = 0.73) were obtained for pre-post improvements in sprint, and small (ES = 0.41) in VJ, following CT. Experimental-groups presented better post-intervention sprint (ES = 1.01) and VJ (ES = 0.63) performance than control-groups. Sprint large ESs were exhibited in younger athletes (<20 years old; ES = 1.13); longer CT interventions (>= 6 weeks; ES = 0.95); conditioning activities with intensities <= 85% 1RM (ES = 0.96) and protocols with frequencies of <3 sessions/week (ES = 0.84). Medium ESs were obtained in Division I players (ES = 0.76); training programs >12 total sessions (ES = 0.74). VJ Large ESs in programs with >12 total sessions (ES = 0.81). Medium ESs obtained for under-Division I individuals (ES = 0.56); protocols with intracomplex rest intervals >= 2 min (ES = 0.55); conditioning activities with intensities <= 85% 1RM (ES = 0.64); basketball/volleyball players (ES = 0.55). Small ESs were found for younger athletes (ES = 0.42); interventions >= 6 weeks (ES = 0.45). Conclusions CT interventions have positive medium effects on sprint performance and small effects on VJ in team-sport athletes. This training method is a suitable option to include in the season planning.
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