Molecular and biochemical analysis of XDH from Phaseolus vulgaris suggest that uric acid protects the enzyme against the inhibitory effects of nitric oxide in nodules
Coleto Reyes, Inmaculada
Alamillo, Josefa M.
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Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 143 : 364-374 (2019)
Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) is essential for the assimilation of symbiotically fixed nitrogen in ureidic legumes. Uric acid, produced in the reaction catalyzed by XDH, is the precursor of the ureides, allantoin and allantoate, which are the main N-transporting molecules in these plants. XDH and uric acid have been reported to be involved in the response to stress, both in plants and animals. However, the physiological role of XDH under stressful conditions in ureidic legumes remains largely unexplored. In vitro assays showed that Phaseolus vulgaris XDH (PvXDH) can behave as a dehydrogenase or as an oxidase. Therefore, it could potentially protect against oxidative radicals or, in contrast, it could increase their production. In silico analysis of the upstream genomic region of XDH coding gene from P. vulgaris revealed the presence of several stress-related cis-regulatory elements. PvXDH mRNA and enzymatic activity in plants treated with stress-related phytohormones or subjected to dehydration and stressful temperatures showed several fold induction. However, PvXDH activity was in vivo and in vitro inhibited by nitric oxide in leaves but not in nodules. In extracts from RNAi PvXDH silenced nodules, with lower levels of uric acid, XDH activity was inhibited by SNP which indicates that uric acid produced by XDH in the nodules of this ureidic legume could help to protect XDH against the inhibitory effects of nitric oxide.