Programmed Cell-Death by Ferroptosis: Antioxidants as Mitigators
Kajarabille Garcia, Naroa
Latunde Dada, Gladys O.
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International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20(19) : (2019) // Article ID 4968
Iron, the fourth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, is vital in living organisms because of its diverse ligand-binding and electron-transfer properties. This ability of iron in the redox cycle as a ferrous ion enables it to react with H2O2, in the Fenton reaction, to produce a hydroxyl radical (center dot OH)-one of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause deleterious oxidative damage to DNA, proteins, and membrane lipids. Ferroptosis is a non-apoptotic regulated cell death that is dependent on iron and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and is characterized by lipid peroxidation. It is triggered when the endogenous antioxidant status of the cell is compromised, leading to lipid ROS accumulation that is toxic and damaging to the membrane structure. Consequently, oxidative stress and the antioxidant levels of the cells are important modulators of lipid peroxidation that induce this novel form of cell death. Remedies capable of averting iron-dependent lipid peroxidation, therefore, are lipophilic antioxidants, including vitamin E, ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1), liproxstatin-1 (Lip-1) and possibly potent bioactive polyphenols. Moreover, most of the enzymes and proteins that cascade or interact in the pathway of ferroptosis such as a subunit of the cystine/glutamate transporter x(c)(-) (SLC7A11), glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), and the glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCLC) iron metabolism genes transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) ferroportin, (Fpn) heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and ferritin are regulated by the antioxidant response element of the transcription factor, Nrf2. These, as well as other radical trapping antioxidants (RTAs), are discussed in the current review.
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).