Food-type may jeopardize biomarker interpretation in mussels used in aquatic toxicological experimentation
Blanco Rayón, Esther
Ivanina, Anna V.
Sokolova, Inna M.
Marigómez Allende, Juan Antonio
Izaguirre Aramayona, Urtzi
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Plos One 14(8) : (2019) // Article ID e0220661
To assess the influence of food type on biomarkers, mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were maintained under laboratory conditions and fed using 4 different microalgae diets ad libitum for 1 week: (a) Isochrysis galbana; (b) Tetraselmis chuii; (c) a mixture of I. galbana and T. chuii; and (d) a commercial food (Microalgae Composed Diet, Acuinuga). Different microalgae were shown to present different distribution and fate in the midgut. I. galbana (approximate to 4 mu m empty set) readily reached digestive cells to be intracellularly digested. T. chuii (approximate to 10 mu m empty set and hardly digestible) was retained in stomach and digestive ducts for long times and extracellularly digested. Based on these findings, it appeared likely that the presence of large amounts of microalgal enzymes and metabolites might interfere with biochemical determinations of mussel's biomarkers and/or that the diet-induced alterations of mussels' digestion could modulate lysosomal and tissue-level biomarkers. To test these hypotheses, a battery of common biochemical, cytological and tissue-level biomarkers were determined in the gills (including activities of pyruvate kinase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and cytochrome c oxidase) and the digestive gland of the mussels (including protein, lipid, free glucose and glycogen total content, lysosomal structural changes and membrane stability, intracellular accumulation of neutral lipids and lipofuscins, changes in cell type composition and epithelial thinning, as well as altered tissue integrity). The type of food was concluded to be a major factor influencing biomarkers in short-term experiments though not all the microalgae affected biomarkers and their responsiveness in the same way. T. chuii seemed to alter the nutritional status, oxidative stress and digestion processes, thus interfering with a variety of biomarkers. On the other hand, the massive presence of I. galbana within digestive cells hampered the measurement of cytochemical biomarkers and rendered less reliable the results of biochemical biomarkers (as these could be attributed to both the mussel and the microalgae). Research to optimize dietary food type, composition, regime and rations for toxicological experimentation is urgently needed. Meanwhile, a detailed description of the food type and feeding conditions should be always provided when reporting aquatic toxicological experiments with mussels, as a necessary prerequisite to compare and interpret the biological responses elicited by pollutants.
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © 2019 Blanco-Rayón et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.