Optical and thermal remote sensing data have been an important tool in geological exploration for certain deposit types. However, the present economic and technological advances demand the adaptation of the remote sensing data and image processing techniques to the exploration of other raw materials like lithium (Li). A bibliometric analysis, using a systematic review approach, was made to understand the recent interest in the application of remote sensing methods in Li exploration. A review of the application studies and developments in this field was also made. Throughout the paper, the addressed topics include: (i) achievements made in Li exploration using remote sensing methods; (ii) the main weaknesses of the approaches; (iii) how to overcome these difficulties; and (iv) the expected research perspectives. We expect that the number of studies concerning this topic will increase in the near future and that remote sensing will become an integrated and fundamental tool in Li exploration.