The Effect of a Family-Based Lifestyle Education Program on Dietary Habits, Hepatic Fat and Adiposity Markers in 8–12-Year-Old Children with Overweight/Obesity
Medrano Echeverría, María
Amasene Ugalde, María
Rodríguez Vigil, Beatriz
Labayen Goñi, Idoya
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Nutrients 12(5) : (2020) // Article ID 1443
Healthy lifestyle education programs are recommended for obesity prevention and treatment. However, there is no previous information on the effects of these programs on the reduction of hepatic fat percentage. The aims were (i) to examine the effectiveness of a 22-week family-based lifestyle education program on dietary habits, and (ii) to explore the associations of changes in dietary intake with percent hepatic fat reduction and adiposity in children with overweight/obesity. A total of 81 children with overweight/obesity (aged 10.6 ± 1.1 years, 53.1% girls) and their parents attended a 22-week family based healthy lifestyle and psychoeducational program accompanied with (intensive group) or without (control) an exercise program. Hepatic fat (magnetic resonance imaging), adiposity (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry) and dietary habits (two non-consecutive 24 h-recalls) were assessed before and after the intervention. Energy (p < 0.01) fat (p < 0.01) and added sugar (p < 0.03) intake were significantly reduced in both groups at the end of the program, while, in addition, carbohydrates intake (p < 0.04) was reduced exclusively in the control group, and simple sugar (p < 0.05) and cholesterol (p < 0.03) intake was reduced in the exercise group. Fruit (p < 0.03) and low-fat/skimmed dairy consumption (p < 0.02), the adherence to the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index for children and teenagers (KIDMED, p < 0.01) and breakfast quality index (p < 0.03) were significantly higher in both control and intervention groups after the intervention. Moreover, participants in the exercise group increased the adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet (p < 0.001), whereas the ratio of evening-morning energy intake was significantly lower exclusively in the control group after the program (p < 0.02). Changes in energy intake were significantly associated with changes in fat mass index (FMI) in the exercise group, whereas changes in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) consumption was associated with percent hepatic fat reduction (p < 0.05) in the control group. A 22-week family-based healthy lifestyle program seems to be effective on improving diet quality and health in children with overweight/obesity and these should focus on SSB avoidance and physical activity.
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).