Intrapersonal Emotional Intelligence during Adolescence: Sex Differences, Connection with other Variables, and Predictors
Garaigordobil Landazabal, Maite
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European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education 10(3) : 899-914 (2020)
This study explores Intrapersonal Emotional Intelligence (IEI) with the objectives of: (1) analyzing possible differences due to sex and age, and the request for psychological assistance for behavioral and emotional problems; (2) finding evidence of personality traits, social behaviors, and parental socialization styles that are characteristic of adolescents with low IEI; and (3) identifying variables that predict high IEI. The sample comprised 2283 participants aged 12–17 years from the Basque Country (northern Spain). Results: (1) Females had greater emotional attention capacity but there were no sex differences in emotional comprehension and emotion regulation; (2) adolescents aged 12–14 showed higher scores in comprehension and emotion regulation than those aged 15–17; (3) adolescents who consulted a psychologist for problems (anxiety, depression, violence, etc.) had lower emotion regulation; (4) adolescents with low IEI had less empathy, self-esteem, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, and responsibility, and lower use of cooperative and passive conflict-resolution strategies, and their parents had a low level of acceptance-affection towards their children. They also engaged in more bullying/cyberbullying and antisocial behaviors. (5) High IEI predictor variables were: using cooperative conflict-resolution strategies; traits such as extroversion, responsibility, openness, and empathy; and a high level of maternal acceptance-affection. The work identifies relevant variables for designing intervention programs and shows the importance of promoting IEI and interpersonal emotional intelligence as a factor in the development and prevention of bullying/cyberbullying.
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as 2020 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).