Neurons like other living cells may have ultraweak photon emission (UPE) during neuronal activity. This study is aimed to evaluate UPE from neural stem cells (NSC) during their serial passaging and differentiation. We also investigate whether the addition of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) or enhancement of UPE (by AgNPs or mirror) affect the differentiation of NSC. In our method, neural stem and progenitor cells of subventricular zone (SVZ) are isolated and expanded using the neurosphere assay. The obtained dissociated cells allocated and cultivated into three groups: groups: I: cell (control), II: cell + mirror, and III: cell + AgNPs. After seven days, the primary neurospheres were counted and their mean number was obtained. Serial passages continuous up to sixth passages in the control group. Differentiation capacity of the resulting neurospheres were evaluated in vitro by immunocytochemistry techniques. Measurement of UPE was carried out by photomultiplier tube (PMT) in the following steps: at the end of primary culture, six serial cell passages of the control group, before and after of the differentiation for 5 minutes. The results show that neither mirror nor AgNPs affect on the neurosphere number. The UPE of the NSC in the sixth subculturing passage was significantly higher than in the primary passage (P < 0.05). AgNPs significantly increased the UPE of the NSC compared to the control group before and after the differentiation (P < 0.05). Also, the treatment with AgNPs increased 44% neuronal differentiation of the harvested NSCs. UPE of NSC after the differentiation was significantly lower than that before the differentiation in each groups, which is in appropriate to the cell numbers (P < 0.0001). The mirror did not significantly increase UPE, neither before nor after the differentiation of NSC. As a conclusion, NSC have UPE-properties and the intensity is increased by serial passaging that are significant in the sixth passage. The AgNPs increases the UPE intensity of NSC that pushes more differentiation of NSC to the neurons. The mirror was not effective in enhancement of UPE. As a result, UPE measurement may be suitable for assessing and studying the effects of nanoparticles in living cells and neurons.