Urticaria and silent parasitism by Ascaridoidea: Component-resolved diagnosis reinforces the significance of this association
Postigo Resa, Idoya
Suñén Pardo, María Ester
Martínez Quesada, Jorge
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Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases 14(4) : (2020) // Article ID e0008177
Urticaria remains a major problem in terms of aetiology, investigation, and management, and although parasitic diseases are considered potential causes, the absence of a consistent link between parasitic infections and skin allergy symptoms leads to the need for a deeper study of parameters that support this association. The objectives of this study were to analyse a possible relationship between parasitism by Ascarididae (Toxocara canis and Anisakis simplex) and the clinical expression of urticaria and to identify possible parasitic molecular markers for improving the diagnosis of unknown urticaria aetiology. The prevalence of Toxocara and Anisakis infestations was evaluated by measuring the levels of specific IgG (sIgG) and IgE (sIgE) antibodies against crude extracts and isolated components from whole larvae of Anisakis simplex (Ani s 1, Ani s 3 and Ani s 7) and Toxocara canis (TES-120, TES-70, TES-32 and TES-26) using immunologic and molecular diagnostic methods. A cross-sectional study was performed in a group of 400 individuals. The study group consisted of 95 patients diagnosed with urticaria (55 with chronic urticaria and 40 with acute urticaria). A control group consisted of 305 subjects without urticaria (182 diagnosed with respiratory allergy and 123 without allergy). Statistically significant differences were demonstrated in the seroprevalence of specific IgG and IgE antibodies between the urticaria patients and the healthy general population when isolated ascarid antigens were evaluated. The prevalence of IgG antibodies against Ani s 1, IgE antibodies against TES-120 and IgE antibodies against TES-70 were significantly different between the control individuals (healthy general population) and patients with urticaria. Moreover, the urticaria patient group demonstrated a higher seroprevalence of antibodies (sIgE and sIgG) against Anisakis simplex larva whole extract than the control group but just with statistically diferences when sIgE was evaluated. The presence of IgE and/or IgG antibodies against Ani s 3 (tropomyosin) can help to discriminate between patients with and without urticaria. Both ascarids seem to be associated with urticaria, although in our region, Anisakis seems to have greater involvement than Toxocara in this relationship. Molecular diagnostics can be used to associate urticaria with parasite infestations. Tropomyosin and Ani s 1 were the most relevant markers to demonstrate the association between urticaria and the most relevant Ascarididae parasites in our region. Author summary Urticaria remains a major problem in terms of aetiology, investigation, and management. It seems that some parasitic diseases could be causes of urticaria. Although there is no definitive consistent link between both entities, several studies have shown a significant positive association between parasite infections, mainly helminthic infections, and urticaria. The study of prevalence data for the most relevant Ascarididae infections in our region in different groups (healthy general population, respiratory allergy patients and patients with urticaria), through the measure of specific IgE and IgG antibodies against crude and molecular antigens of Anisakis and Toxocara, allowed us to define some antigenic markers that can be used to discriminate urticaria patients from the control individuals.
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as 2020 Viñas et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.