Performance of Apple Pomace for Gluten-Free Bread Manufacture: Effect on Physicochemical Characteristics and Nutritional Value
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Applied Sciences 12(12) : (2022) // Article ID 5934
Apple pomace has been proposed as a quality enhancer for gluten-free bread, but its composition and physicochemical features differ significantly depending on the apple cultivar. The objective of this article was to characterize apple pomace powder (APP) from certain varieties from the Basque Country and to study the feasibility of adding it to gluten-free bread, focusing on physicochemical and nutritional aspects. APP was obtained by washing, drying and grinding, and it was added at 0, 5, 6 and 8%, together with other ingredients, such as gluten-free flours, corn starch and whey protein. APP had a reddish-grey coloration (L* 56.49 ± 1.39, a* 11.07 ± 0.47, b* 27.69 ± 1.76), pH 4.19 ± 0.15 and Aw 0.235 ± 0.084. Pomace powder was used successfully in higher amounts than experiences reported before. Key physicochemical parameters such as specific volume (≥2.5 cm3/g) and cohesiveness or resilience values (0.538 and 0.378, respectively) suggested good acceptability for gluten-free breads with 8% APP. Additionally, breads were a source of antioxidant potential (437.66 ± 38.95 µM DPPHeq/g APP), fiber (80.13 ± 6.07 g/100 g) and micronutrients such as Cu, Mg, Mn and Fe. In conclusion, local apple varieties are a good source of raw material for gluten-free bread manufacture, which offers a solution for environmental pollution and may contribute to boosting the circular economy.
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © 2022 by the authors.Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/).