A comprehensive review of C-S-H empirical and computational models, their applications, and practical aspects
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Cement and Concrete Research 156 : (2022) // Article ID 106784
[EN] The C-S-H gel is an elusive material. Its variable composition and disordered nature complicate a complete characterization of its atomic structure, and the elaboration of models is key to understanding it. This work aims to review those proposed models, dividing them into empirical and computational models. After a brief description of related crystalline calcium silicate hydrates, empirical C-S-H models based on interpretation of experimental data are presented. Then, we focus on the historic development of atomistic models to study the C-S-H, until the current state of the art. We describe current computational C-S-H models built from the empirical models and computer simulations. We review common applications of these computational models: the aluminum incorporation, the elastic and mechanical properties, the diffusion of water and ions in nanopores, and C-S-H/organic composites. Finally, we discuss some practical aspects of the computational models and their interpretation, as well as possible future directions.