Acoustic plasmons in extrinsic free-standing graphene
Silkin, V. M.
Pitarke de la Torre, José María
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New Journal of Physics 16 2014 : (2014) // Article ID 083003
An acoustic plasmon is predicted to occur, in addition to the conventional two-dimensional (2D) plasmon, as the collective motion of a system of two types of electronic carriers coexisting in the same 2D band of extrinsic (doped or gated) graphene. The origin of this novel mode stems from the anisotropy present in the graphene band structure near the Dirac points K and K'. This anisotropy allows for the coexistence of carriers moving with two distinct Fermi velocities along the Gamma K and Gamma K' directions, which leads to two modes of collective oscillation: one mode in which the two types of carriers oscillate in phase with one another (this is the conventional 2D graphene plasmon, which at long wavelengths (q -> 0) has the same dispersion, q(1/2), as the conventional 2D plasmon of a 2D free electron gas), and the other mode found here corresponds to a low-frequency acoustic oscillation (whose energy exhibits at long-wavelengths a linear dependence on the 2D wavenumber q) in which the two types of carriers oscillate out of phase. This prediction represents a realization of acoustic