Application of a Biological Multilevel Response Approach in the Copepod Acartia Tonsa for Toxicity Testing of Three Oil Water Accommodated Fractions
Bilbao Alemany, Dennis
Ortiz Zarragoitia, Maren
MetadataShow full item record
Marine Environmental Research 169 : (2021) // Article ID 105378
Abstract Copepods play a critical role in the marine food webs, being a food source for marine organisms. In this study, we investigated the toxic effects of Water Accommodated Fractions (WAFs) from three types of oil: Naphthenic North Sea crude oil (NNS), Intermediate Fuel Oil (IFO 180) and a commercial Marine Gas Oil (MGO). The WAFs were prepared at 10°C and 30 PSU (practical salinity unit), and tested on the marine copepod Acartia tonsa at different endpoints and at different levels of biological organization. We determined the median lethal concentrations after 96h (LC50) and reproduction capabilities were calculated in adult females following seven days of exposure to sublethal WAF doses. The total lipid content was measured in reproductive females using Nile red lipophilic dye after 96h of WAF exposure. We also measured the transcription levels of genes involved in antioxidant response and xenobiotic biotransformation after short exposure for 48h. High doses (7% WAF) of MGO affected survival, percentage of fecund females, egg hatching success, and total lipid content. The IFO 180 WAF affected, at medium (20%) and high (40%) doses, the number of fecund females, mortality and produced significant effects on gene expression levels. In conclusion, toxicity assays showed that the WAFs prepared from refined oils were more toxic than crude oil WAF to Acartia tonsa.